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Interventional cardiology is the subspecialty of cardiology that uses specific catheter-based systems to diagnose and treat coronary artery disease, vascular disease, structural heart disease, and congenital heart defects.

Cardiac surgery is surgery on the heart or great vessels implemented by cardiac surgeons. It is often used to treat difficulties of ischemic heart disease (for example, with coronary artery bypass grafting) or to treat valvular heart disease from various causes. Cardiac surgeons, interventional cardiologists and imaging specialists classically work together as the Heart Team, in particular in structural heart centers of brilliance. In this segment, you will find a selection of content in the field of interventional cardiovascular surgery.


Pediatric cardiologists stipulate in analyzing and treating heart problems in children. In those children who might want heart surgery, pediatric cardiologists work thoroughly with pediatric heart surgeons to regulate the best treatments and interventions. A number of heart disorders can affect children. Some are structural consistencies they are born with.

Neonatal cardiology is the valuation and management of full-term and premature newborns with heart defects.


Blood pressure is the force smeared by circulating blood against the walls of the body’s arteries, the major blood vessels in the body. Hypertension is when blood pressure is too high. Blood pressure is inscribed as two numbers. The first (systolic) number signifies the density in blood vessels when the heart contracts or beats. The second (diastolic) number signifies the density in the vessels when the heart rests between beats.

Healthcare is the care or improvement of health via the hindrance, diagnosis, treatment, amelioration, or cure of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in people. Health care is carried by health professionals and allied health fields. Medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, midwifery, nursing, optometry, audiology, psychology, occupational therapy, physical therapy, athletic training, and other health professions are all part of health care. It embraces work done in providing primary care, secondary care, and tertiary care, as well as in public health.


A heart arrhythmia (uh-RITH-me-uh) is an irregular heartbeat. Heart rhythm problems (heart arrhythmias) occur when the electrical signals that manage the heart's beats don't work appropriately. The faulty signaling sources the heart to beat too fast (tachycardia), too slow (bradycardia) or irregularly. Heart arrhythmias may feel like a beating or racing heart and may be inoffensive. However, some heart arrhythmias may cause bothersome.

In a usual heart rhythm, a tiny mass of cells at the sinus node sends out an electrical signal. The signal then investigations through the atria to the Atrioventricular (AV) node and into the ventricles, causing them to indenture and pump blood. A heart arrhythmia (uh-RITH-me-uh) is an uneven heartbeat.


Cardiomyopathy is an ailment of the heart muscle that makes it harder for your heart to pump blood to the rest of your body. Cardiomyopathy can lead to heart failure.

The main kinds of cardiomyopathy comprise dilated, hypertrophic and restrictive cardiomyopathy. Treatment — which might embrace medications, surgically implanted devices, heart surgery or, in severe cases, a heart transplant — depends on which type of cardiomyopathy you have and how serious it is.


The stint acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is applied to patients in whom there is a suspicion or confirmation of acute myocardial ischemia or infarction. Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), ST-elevation MI (STEMI), and uneven angina are the three traditional sorts of ACS. However, the widespread use of the high-sensitivity troponin test has altered the diagnosis of unstable angina to NSTEMI in almost all patients formerly analyzed with unstable angina. This has happened because those patients formerly called unstable angina actually have unusually elevated high-sensitivity troponin values.


Robotic cardiac surgery is heart surgery done through very minor cuts in the chest. With the use of tiny instruments and robot-controlled tools, surgeons are capable to do heart surgery in a way that is ample less invasive than open-heart surgery. The procedure is sometimes called da Vinci surgery because that is the name of the manufacturer of the robot often used for this technique. Robotic surgeries have been used for a number of dissimilar heart-related procedures, including valve surgery, coronary artery bypass, cardiac tissue ablation, heart defect repair, and tumor removal.


Cardiac imaging states to non-invasive imaging of the heart using ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), or nuclear medicine (NM) imaging with PET or SPECT. These cardiac procedures are otherwise stated to as echocardiography, Cardiac MRI, Cardiac CT, Cardiac PET and Cardiac SPECT including myocardial perfusion imaging.


Cardio oncology or cardiovascular oncology is an interdisciplinary arena of medicine by which are considered the molecular and clinical alterations in cardiovascular system during the different methods of treatment of cancer, especially chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Cardio-oncology is a new field in cardiology. Cardio-oncologists are characteristically cardiologists who see cancer survivors or patients getting cancer treatment who grow side effects that affect the heart. Cardio-oncologists have a special attention in and information about cardiac side effects of chemotherapy, targeted therapy and radiation to treat cancer. Since it is a fairly new arena in cardiology, many U.S. cities do not yet have cardio-oncologists.


An echocardiography, cardiac echo or simply an echo is an ultrasound of the heart. It is a kind of medical imaging of the heart, using standard ultrasound or Doppler ultrasound. Echocardiography has turn out to be routinely used in the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of patients with any alleged or known heart diseases. It is one of the most extensively used diagnostic tests in cardiology. It can offer a wealth of helpful information, comprising the size and shape of the heart (internal chamber size quantification), pumping capacity, and the location and extent of any tissue damage. An echocardiogram can also give physicians other estimations of heart function, such as a control of the cardiac output, ejection fraction, and diastolic function (how well the heart relaxes).


Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), or coronary heart disease, progresses when the coronary arteries become too narrow or cholesterol blockages develop in the walls. The coronary arteries are the blood vessels that source oxygen and blood to the heart. CAD inclines to improve when cholesterol builds up on the artery walls, creating plaques. These plaques affect the arteries to narrow, reducing blood flow to the heart, or can root inflammation in and hardening of the walls of the blood vessel. A clot can occasionally obstruct blood flow, causing solemn health problems.


Cardiac regeneration is a wide exertion that matters to repair irreversibly injured heart tissue with cutting-edge science, with stem cell and cell-free therapy. Reparative tools have been engineered to renew damaged heart tissue and purpose by the body's natural ability to regenerate. Working together, patients and providers are finding regenerative solutions that reinstate, renew and recycle patients' own reparative capacity. Through the vision and generous provision of Russ and Kathy Van Cleve, strong exertions are underway to cultivate discoveries that will have a global influence on ischemic heart disease.


Cardiac nursing is a nursing field that works with patients who suffer from various situations of the cardiovascular system. Cardiac nurses aid treat conditions such as unstable angina, cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction and cardiac dysrhythmia under the way of a cardiologist.

Cardiac nurses accomplish postoperative care on a surgical unit, stress test evaluations, cardiac monitoring, vascular monitoring, and health assessments. Cardiac nurses must have Basic Life Care and Advanced Cardiac Life Support certification. In addition, cardiac nurses must own specialized skills counting electrocardiogram monitoring, defibrillation, and medication management by continuous intravenous drip. Cardiac nurses work in numerous different environments, including coronary care units (CCU), cardiac catheterization, intensive care units (ICU), operating theatres, cardiac rehabilitation centers, clinical research, cardiac surgery wards, cardiovascular intensive care units (CVICU), and cardiac medical wards.


The advent of drugs bright to modulate the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), and more recently the neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril in mixture with a RAS blocker, has better the outcome of many cardiovascular and renal conditions. In specific, heart failure, post-myocardial infarction, and hypertension are the cardiovascular clinical syndromes in which RAS inhibition (and in heart failure, in combination with neprilysin inhibition) have significantly improved morbidity and mortality. This section aims to offer an appraisal of RAS and neprilysin inhibitors concerning their pharmacological properties with respect to mechanism(s) of action, pharmacokinetics, monitoring, adverse effects, and drug interactions.


Nuclear cardiology studies use noninvasive methods to assess myocardial blood flow, appraise the pumping function of the heart as well as imagine the size and position of a heart attack. Among the methods of nuclear cardiology, myocardial perfusion imaging is the most widely used.